10:11 Ephraim . . . Judah. Both kingdoms are in view.
trained calf . . . loved to thresh. A positive image of Israel’s original calling as a teachable, unmuzzled animal threshing the harvested grain and free to eat as it worked (cf. 11:4; Deut. 25:4; Prov. 12:10; Jer. 50:11). Jesus also offers an easy yoke to His disciples (Matt. 11:28–30).
fair neck. That is, a strong neck capable of arduous work. Israel had not fulfilled the Lord’s expectations. The easy yoke of covenant blessings would be replaced by the hard yoke of covenant curses in order to teach them obedience.