until tribute comes to him. Lit. “Until Shiloh comes.” The precise meaning of this phrase is debated. Some understand “Shiloh” as a place-name (“until Judah’s leadership comes to Shiloh,” cf. Josh. 18:1) or as a reference to tribute (“until tribute is brought to Judah”). Others see this as a reference to a coming Judahite ruler: “until he comes to whom it belongs” (cf. Ezek. 21:27) or “until Shiloh [possibly a messianic term] comes.” The subsequent mention of dominion over “people” (or “peoples,” the Hebrew noun is plural) points to the final realization of this prophecy in the universal messianic reign of Christ (1 Cor. 15:24–28; Rev. 5:5). God’s plan for mankind to rule and have dominion (1:26–28) is concentrated in Him.