43:3 Judah. Another brother had to step forward after Jacob’s definitive refusal to Reuben (42:37, 38; cf. 49:3, 4). With his leadership rebuffed, Reuben is henceforth eclipsed by Joseph (who assumes the firstborn’s privileges, 37:8 note) and by Judah (who here takes Reuben’s place of responsibility for the eleven brothers and whose royal tribe was to produce the Messiah, vv. 8, 9; 49:10).