33:3, 4 Jacob greeted Esau as a vassal greets his patron in the ceremony of a royal court, with the deference appropriate to a superior—note the sevenfold obeisance (common practice in ancient Near Eastern court protocol, v. 3), the submissive address of a “servant” (v. 5) to his “lord” (vv. 8, 13), and the presentation of gifts of homage (vv. 10, 11). In contrast, Esau greeted Jacob as one brother greets another after a long separation (vv. 4, 9).