5:12 gave them into the hand. God gave Israel into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar to punish them for breaking the covenant. Those who trust in Christ are safe from God’s righteous anger (1 John 4:17–18), because God the Father gave Christ into the hands of wicked men, and Christ endured God’s wrath on behalf of the elect (Mark 9:31; Luke 9:44; 24:7; Rom. 8:32).
Chaldean. The Chaldeans lived in southern Mesopotamia and established the Neo-Babylonian Empire by overthrowing the Assyrians in 612 b.c. The new empire continued until overthrown by the Persians in 539.