7:2–5 The theological explanation of the plagues is given in the first five plagues. Pharaoh’s obstinacy is self-motivated (7:22; 8:15, 32; 9:7). God is said to have hardened Pharaoh’s heart in plagues seven, eight, and nine (10:1, 20, 27). In the sixth plague, the obstinacy stems from Pharaoh himself (9:35), but God also claims to have hardened Pharaoh (10:1). God’s purpose is not simply judgment on Pharaoh, but manifesting His power to save His people so that His name might be proclaimed in all the earth (9:16; Rom. 9:17, 18).