13:9 sign . . . memorial. Interpreting this figurative expression literally, Jews later put brief passages of the Law (13:1–10, 11–16; Deut. 6:4–9; 11:13–21) in small boxes and attached them to the left arm and forehead. These are the tephillim, the phylacteries (protections) of later Judaism, to which Jesus referred in criticizing the Pharisees’ ostentatious displays of piety (Matt. 23:5).