6:4 Fathers. Conversely, to parents Paul stresses the responsibility of those in authority.
bring them up. The Greek suggests the idea of nurturing and helping to flourish (cf. 5:29). Parents are entrusted with the minds, feelings, and bodies of tender bearers of the divine image. Accordingly, children do not exist for parents, but parents for children—to help them come into their own personhood before God.
discipline. The shaping of the will through training.
instruction. The shaping of the mind through teaching.