4:17–19 This passage closely resembles the critique of Gentile culture in Rom. 1. While the letter to the Romans shows God as giving Gentiles over to a reckless and wanton life (Rom. 1:24–31), Ephesians presents the same progression from the human side: those who have turned aside “have given themselves up” (v. 19). Similarly in Exodus God is said to harden Pharaoh’s heart (e.g., Ex. 4:21; 7:3), but Pharaoh also hardens his own heart (Ex. 8:15, 32; 9:34).