2:1–3 The natural state of all human beings is a kind of spiritual death. This spiritual condition is universal: both Gentiles (v. 2) and Jews (v. 3) are “by nature children of wrath” (v. 3; on Paul’s view of “nature” see Rom. 1). Second, they are in active rebellion against God; note the use of “walked” in regard to Gentiles in v. 2 and “lived” in reference to Jews in v. 3. Third, they are subject to the evil rule of Satan (called in v. 2 “the prince of the power of the air”; cf. Gal. 4:3; Col. 1:13). Fourth, they are totally unable to change themselves from rebellion against God (John 3:3). Fifth, they are exposed to the just anger of God (v. 3; 5:6; Rom. 1:18–20).