1:3–14 One long sentence in Greek, this is an expansion of the condensed praise of God’s purpose in Rom. 8:28–30. Praise goes to the Father who elects (vv. 4–6), the Son who redeems (vv. 7–12), and the Spirit who seals (vv. 13, 14). Paul reflects on believers’ election from eternity, their forgiveness in the present, and their inheritance in the future. Key throughout is the repetition of the phrases “in Christ” or “in Him,” referring to the intimate union God has established between Christ and His people.