32:21 no people. Just as Israel provoked God by worshiping that which was “no God,” so God would provoke them by means of “those who are no people” (people outside the sphere of the Mosaic covenant). This prophecy is partly fulfilled in the Old Testament as Israel is defeated by God’s instruments of judgment, the Assyrians and Babylonians (Is. 10:5; Jer. 21:4–10). In the New Testament, Paul finds further fulfillment of this verse in the extension of the gospel to the Gentiles (Rom. 10:19; 11:11).