8:9 a little horn. According to v. 23, this “little horn” symbolizes a wicked ruler who will arise in one of the four Greek kingdoms after a long interval of time (“at the latter end of their kingdom”). The descriptions of the actions of this ruler (vv. 9–14; 23–25) indicate that he is Antiochus IV Epiphanes, ruler of the Seleucid kingdom from 175–164 b.c. This horn must be distinguished from the “little one” of 7:8 if that chapter refers to the Roman period and not the Greek.
toward the glorious land. That is, toward Palestine.