9:12 Edom. Though subject to divine judgment (1:11, 12), a remnant of Edom will be brought under the redemptive kingship of David’s Son. Edom, indeed all the nations, will benefit from coming under the dominion of this future King (Ps. 2:8). In Acts 15:16, 17, James applies this passage to God’s taking a people for Himself from among the Gentiles and including them in the church.
and all the nations. The addition of this phrase suggests that “the remnant of Edom” represents the redeemed from all nations.
who are called by my name. This phrase tells us that some, not all, from every Gentile group will come under the dominion of David’s Son. Only those who bear God’s name among all the nations will be included. The phrase (lit. “upon whom My name is called”) indicates subordination to the Name and sometimes is used of Israel’s subordination to God’s covenant lordship (Deut. 28:10; Jer. 14:9). Amos foresees that the Lord will take possession of the remnant of all nations and will reign over them in a covenantal relationship through His messianic King (Acts 15:13–17).