Amos 8:5

8:5 new moon . . . Sabbath. The New Moon festival was celebrated every fourth week, with various offerings (Num. 28:11–15). The Sabbath, observed every week, was founded on God’s acts of creation (Ex. 20:8–11) and redemption (Deut. 5:12 note). Work was forbidden on these days.

ephah small . . . balances. Such dishonest business practices were against the Lord’s law, and would result in His judgment (Lev. 19:36; Deut. 25:14).