4:13 who forms . . . declares . . . makes . . . treads. This verse is in the form of an ancient Near Eastern divine or royal title: a series of titles or epithets used to describe the deeds or powers of a god or king. Here they describe the great King, who is abundantly able to carry out the curses He originally threatened in the covenant (cf. Is. 44:24–28).
the Lord, the God of hosts. See note Zech. 1:3.