3:9 Proclaim. The command is in the plural, and is apparently directed at the Lord’s servants the prophets.
Ashdod . . . Egypt. Amos poetically summons the pagan nobility to look upon the injustice that reigns in Samaria. Israel (the northern kingdom) should have been more righteous, not less, than her pagan neighbors; it is ironic that these pagans should be called as witnesses to Israel’s misbehavior.
mountains of Samaria. Samaria was surrounded by mountains, from which the spectators are asked to view her.
tumults. Or, “disturbances,” as the word is translated in 2 Chr. 15:5. Such conditions result from sin and are the opposite of “peace” (Hebrew shalom).