3:6 trumpet. See note 2:2. Siege was a fearful prospect in the ancient world, for it often resulted in starvation of the populace, followed by all the horrors of conquest: rape, pillage, slaughter, and burning.
disaster. Lit. “evil.” The Old Testament teaches that the Lord is the Creator of peace and of calamity (Is. 45:7). This does not mean that God is the author of evil, but rather that He sovereignly brings disaster or adversity on individuals and nations as just punishment. The curses pronounced in Gen. 3:14–19 show that the Lord brings such punishment.