2:23 according to the definite plan and foreknowledge of God. Although wicked men, both Jews and Gentiles (4:27, 28), had of their own will put Jesus to death, their actions were within the sovereign determination of God (cf. 17:26; 2 Chr. 25:16; Jer. 21:10; Dan. 11:36). God ordained the death of His Son, but the immediate perpetrators bear the guilt for crucifying Jesus (3:17, 18; 4:27, 28; 13:27). God ordains the means as well as the ends of human events without violating human freedom and responsibility. The Jews could not pass their guilt to the Romans; they had asked the Romans to crucify Jesus. Peter teaches that the Jews were accountable (3:15; 4:10; 5:30; 10:39).
crucified. Luke again emphasizes how Jesus died (Luke 24:39). Archaeologists have discovered in Palestine the pierced heel bones of a first-century a.d. victim of crucifixion.