4:21 before winter. Winter weather would prevent travel by ship. Paul may have felt that if Timothy waited too long, he would not arrive before Paul’s execution (v. 9). In any event, he needed his cloak before winter (v. 13).
Eubulus . . . Pudens and Linus and Claudia. These would be Christians in Rome, although none is mentioned elsewhere in the New Testament. According to Roman Catholic tradition Linus succeeded Peter as bishop of Rome.