5:3 King David made a covenant. See 3:21. The covenant establishing David’s rule over the northern tribes likely consisted of regulations for the kingship (cf. 1 Sam. 10:25), including their rights and responsibilities to one another and to the Lord (2 Kin. 11:17). That this covenant did not end the sense of separate identity felt by Israel and Judah is evident in the revolt of Sheba (20:1) and particularly in the dissolution of the united kingdom under Rehoboam (1 Kin. 12:16).
they anointed David. See note 2:4.