forced labor. The Hebrew word translated “forced labor” here and in 1 Kin. 12:18 is used to describe the hard labor imposed on subjugated peoples like the Israelites in Egypt (Ex. 1:11), or the surviving Canaanites after the Israelite conquest (Josh. 16:10; Judg. 1:28). It also describes the labor done by conscripts from Israel itself on the building projects of Solomon (1 Kin. 9:15). Neither Adoram nor forced laborers are included in the first summary of David’s government (8:15–18), which may suggest that forced labor was not introduced until later on in David’s reign (see perhaps 12:31).
Jehoshaphat . . . recorder. That is, perhaps a “royal herald” (see 8:16 note).