22:3 eighteenth year. That is, when Josiah was twenty-six years old.
secretary. Or “scribe,” see 2 Sam. 8:17; Ezra 7:6 and notes. By the time of Josiah’s reign, the Assyrian Empire was in a state of decline. Josiah, unlike Manasseh, asserted Judah’s independence from Assyria. Josiah was able to gain control over at least part of the former northern kingdom (23:4, 15–20).