1:5 we share abundantly in Christ’s sufferings. Not that we can add anything to Christ’s suffering for us (Is. 53:11; John 19:30; Heb. 9:26–28), but God has called us to suffer for Christ and so to follow in Christ’s steps (Rom. 8:17; Col. 1:24; Heb. 12:2, 3; 1 Pet. 2:21). Because believers are united to Christ and are spiritually part of His body, both our sufferings for the gospel and the comfort God provides in Christ are a result of our participation in Him (Phil. 3:10, 11). Here Paul hints at a persistent feature of his teaching. The key experiences of Christ, especially His suffering, death, and resurrection, are the pattern by which Christians can understand their own suffering and final triumph.