by dreams, or by Urim, or by prophets. Saul rejected the Lord and as a consequence was rejected by the Lord (15:23 and note). This cut him off from the usual means of divine inquiry. Whereas David had the prophet Gad in his retinue (22:5), it is unlikely that a true prophet accompanied Saul. Moreover, the authentic ephod containing the Urim and Thummim (2:28 note) had come into David’s possession through Abiathar (23:6).