9:16 Pharaoh . . . had gone up and captured Gezer. Gezer had remained in Canaanite hands, despite the Israelite conquest (Josh. 16:10; Judg. 1:29). The pharaoh captured Gezer, perhaps from the Philistines. Since Egypt and Israel had a treaty (3:1), it was in the interest of both countries not to have Gezer in hostile hands.