15:45 living being . . . life-giving spirit. Paul clarifies his meaning by continuing the contrast between the first and the last Adam (vv. 21, 22 note). The Greek word translated “being” (psyche) is related to the word translated “natural” in v. 44 (psychikos), while the word “spirit” (pneuma) corresponds to “spiritual” (pneumatikos). The words “life-giving spirit” are most probably a reference to the Holy Spirit. Jesus and the Holy Spirit are not the same Person, but He and the Spirit are identified in terms of their presence and activity in the church. This identity, known to us because Jesus too is life-giving, is the fulfillment of Jesus’ role as Messiah and commenced with His resurrection and ascension. To be in Christ is to be in the Spirit also (6:11, 15, 19; 12:19). The association of Christ, the Holy Spirit, and life is apparent in Rom. 8:9–11 and 2 Cor. 3:6, 17, 18.