11:3 the head. The significance of this metaphor has long been debated by scholars—it may indicate leadership and authority, or source and origin. The evidence from Greek literature is ambiguous, and the present context does not resolve the problem. The two ideas should probably not be regarded as excluding each other. In two other contexts where Paul speaks of Christ as head (Eph. 4:15; Col. 2:19), the notion of “source” may be present (cf. v. 8). Elsewhere Paul uses the metaphor with explicit reference to authority or submission (Eph. 1:22; 5:23, 24; Col. 1:18; 2:10). Here the stress probably falls on authority rather than source (cf. v. 10).