21:1 Satan. When the Hebrew word satan is used with a definite article, it means lit. “the adversary” (Job 1:6; Zech. 3:1). Here satan is used for the first time without a definite article, probably as a proper name. See “Satan” at Job 1:6.
Satan stood. According to 1 Sam. 24:1, it was God who moved David. God Himself tempts no one (James 1:13), but He employs created means under His sovereign control. Chronicles identifies Satan as the instrument by which David was led astray. The two passages together remind us that God is sovereign over all events, not excepting temptation and sin (11:4; 25:20 note; Ex. 4:21 note; Josh. 11:20; 1 Kin. 22:22–23; 2 Chr. 10:15 note; Job 1:12; 2:10; Ezek. 3:20; 14:9; Matt. 6:13; Acts 4:27, 28).