IV. Literary Characteristics
Paul continues his frequent use of triads (1:2, 7, 11, et al.) and hymnic structure (2:11-13). Of all Paul's letters, this one has a tone of pathos because of Paul's imprisonment (1:8, 16; 2:9), his awareness of impending death (4:6), and his twice-repeated desire for Timothy to join him (vv. 9, 21). Poignancy is heightened by some of Paul's companions who were ashamed of his imprisonment (1:8) and deserted him (4:10). Because of his sense of impending death, Paul repeatedly commands Timothy to stay with and promote the faith (4:2-5), and he frequently refers to “that day” (1:12, 18; 4:8).