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V. Furthering Sound Doctrine (3:12–15)

Paul closes with a potpourri of concerns. Artemas is unknown except for this reference. Tychicus, the carrier of the Ephesian/Colossian letters (Eph 6:21; Col 4:7-8), is also mentioned in Ac 20:4 and 2Ti 4:12. Evidently Artemas or Tychicus will relieve Titus. Two cities were named Nicopolis: one inland and north of Philippi; the other a seaport on the Adriatic, northwest of Corinth. The seaport city is preferred here, although we have no record of Paul being in either. Winter was always a difficult time for sea travel (see 2Ti 4:21). Zenas is unknown except for this reference. Lawyer may be used of an expert in Jewish or Roman law. Given the Greek name, Zenas was probably an expert in Roman law. Apollos was a powerful Jewish preacher who was born in Alexandria and fully instructed in the Gospel at Ephesus by Priscilla and Aquila (Ac 18:24-26; 1Co 3:5-6; 16:12). Zenas and Apollos were coming to Crete, perhaps even carrying this letter, and were to receive Titus's hospitality.

In 3:14 Paul reminds Titus that the people must devote themselves to doing good (see v. 8) in order to meet daily necessities and thus not be unfruitful.

Those with Paul send greetings to Titus. You is singular. Titus is then requested to greet those who love us in the faith. The qualification of love clearly shows that this is a love springing from and residing in faith in Christ. This love is possible only because of God's grace (2:11; 3:7). Thus Paul writes grace be with all of you, the whole community of faith.

Bibliography

See the bibliography at the end of 1 Timothy.