The letter closes with more personal greetings and another reminder to Timothy to arrive before winter. Priscilla and Aquila were tentmakers and Jewish believers (see Ac 18:1-26). The positioning of Priscilla's name before Aquila's is an indication of Paul's respect for her. For household of Onesiphorus see 1:16. With Timothy, Erastus is a fellow helper of Paul (Ac 19:22). Trophimus is Paul's companion in Macedonia (Ac 20:4) and in Jerusalem (Ac 21:29). Miletus is a seaport in Asia Minor (Ac 20:15). Do your best is a repetition of 4:9. Before winter is a reminder of the hazards of winter sea travel (see Ac 27). Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, and Claudia are all Latin names and unknown. They may have been new converts, since they are not mentioned in Ro 16.
A double benediction ends the letter. The first is for Timothy—your, singular—and recalls 1:7. The second is addressed to you, plural, and affirms the theme of grace. Grace is a gift from Christ (2Ti 1:9); it is strength from God (2:1; see 1Ti 6:21).
See the bibliography at the end of 1 Timothy.